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A new study revealed that 8 out of every 10 Americans fear democracy in the country two-thirds believe that the democratic system is weak. Research commissioned by a bipartisan group of democratic project, which involves former President George W. Bush and former Vice President Joe Biden. The longest presidential campaign in United States history that began in 2015, the new in the political discourse of the American words, many believed to belong to the past. Especially two words loaded with fear the history of fascism and Nazism. But sadly the return was not due only to the abuse of dishonest tragedies in history, and how to use curse words of any person not identified with the left.

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Supporters of fascism and Nazism has not been eliminated in the United States. The difference in the 2016 elections, is that they have given open support to a candidate they have more visibility in the comitia in the digital media of the right, including on the website and then associated with future presidential adviser Steve Bannon. The Republican candidate not expressed her anger with the call. Moderate Republicans and Liberal Democrats tried to see in this sudden emergence of extremists by the interested as an anomaly of the transient. After all, as former director of the FBI James Comey’s unprecedented interference in the Russian elections in favor of the former provider of trainees to be investigated without fanfare because neither he nor most political observers believed that Hillary Clinton won’t be elected.

But even before the start of the presidential campaign, the seeds of a renewed relationship with fascism was planted by birtherismo, the theory of conspiratória under which the country’s first black president will have been born in Hawaii but in Kenya. In March 2011, Donald Trump told the ABC network that I was thinking about what if application, yes, it was necessary to doubt that Obama was an American citizen charge to stay even without the slightest sincerity to abandon it two months before he was elected.

On birtherismo of view of the philosopher and a professor at Yale University Jason Stanley, the son of refugees from the 2.The war grandson of Elsie Stanley of possible Jewish German who saved hundreds of Jews posing as a Nazi officer in a concentration camp chronicled her memories of the Unforgotten, which was published in 1957. Jason Stanley launched at the end of 2016, praised how the advertising (how advertising works), a book about the fragility of the democratic systems in the framework of the dissemination of propaganda.

In September, leaves in the United States how fascism works: the policy of the United States and (how fascist: a car between us and them), the new work of the philosopher. The book provides the historical context of the references, but not from the date of the outbreak, it is a guide to determine the policies of fascism in the contemporary world. In an exclusive interview in fact, Jason Stanley reflected on the weight of the word fascism. She had lost the effect? “Don’t” react badly. “The word was appropriate in 2016. It is possible to be fascist, as has already happened in England, in the 1930s, and not participate in the crime.” The author reminds us that the origin of the Italian word fascio, Beam, feature) leads to avoided by nationalists, eggs, neofascistas Americans.

Despite the mea culpa collective complacency with questionnaire advertised in the campaign, professor Stanley the snake, the more moderate journalists. “Look in the last week, how much time allocated sweater the first lady who said: ‘I don’t care what you are? Someone noted a plan to reduce the feeding program that meets the 12% of the population? Journalists joined the symbolic politics of choice for bloggers of discontent, ” he recalls.

Stanley cites Hungary, Poland, Turkey and Russia are examples of countries that the policies of the fascists succeed by election. As well as in the campaign slogan of America 2016, to make America Great Again, romantiza the country from the 1950s, a critical resource in the policy of fascism is to promote a return to the past which did not happen. “It’s a mythical glorious past,” he explains. “There comes the other important component of fascism, opposition to Science, Education, General liberal. Science and education a wide deny the past fake. Public school is the enemy, puts people in groups and different groups to contact if you interact with the other, is not likely to consider him a threat.”

How to explain the devotion a member of the cult of the voters of the current president on policies such as cutting access to medical care, benefits, and trade war, which should lead to higher prices and unemployment? After all, he said, a cliché in Italy, Benito Mussolini, at least the trains were always on time. Fidelity says Jason Stanley, racism, the designer, according to him, by 53% of white women that voted in the president and more than 90% of black women who voted for Hillary Clinton. But if the patriarch is one of the elements of fascism, and explains all the supporting female Trump? Again, the safety, says. The patriarch protects the interior of the group from external threat.

In conclusion how fascism works Stanley responds to the possible criticism that sold reverse democratic progress. The problem of standardization of the fact, he says, and cites a recent study by two academics from Yale University about “the rule of normalcy.” Our perception of what is normal depends on, in addition to the principles that we consider it statistically normal. “When cruelty becomes more frequent,” he says, as in the case of children of parents in the border “becomes more acceptable. It is a means to achieve fascist political reality of fascism.”

Ask Professor Stanley, which has students between the ages of 18 and 21 years, gives the case of so-called propaganda, ideology, democracy, optimistic about the democratic consciousness of students. “No,” the triggers. “Two years ago, my classes annoyed with the direction of our car. The freshmen that came in this year, they had never known another president. No memory, seem to think that this is all normal”.

Jason Stanley refers to how to recognize fascism in ten steps:

The Suns of the past

The genesis of the outbreak in the mythical past, when there was racial purity or religious or cultural. Legends is a multiplayer provoke nostalgia for what never happens.

Advertising

The creation of the problem of the immigration crisis dummy and unify the group fight against the invasion of aliens.

Anti-intellectualism. To the erosion of public discourse is informed, it is necessary that you of science, of liberal education, specialized knowledge.

Unreality

Once the anti-intellectualism successful, rational debate is to replace fear, anger, stimulation of the feeling of loss required to find the guilty.

Hierarchy

Nature imposes hierarchy of the council is inconsistent with the ambition of equality before the law, which was expanded under liberal democracy.

Abuse

Increase the representation of minorities causes a feeling of victim among the majority of light on power sharing. The heart of the fascist loyalty to a tribe, ethnic, religious and cultural.

Law and order

This feeling الرجالara license violate law and order. Impunity for killings by the police violations in prisons are necessary to protect the good of society.

Sexual anxiety

If the demagogue is the father of the nation, any attack on patriarchy and the traditional family is a threat. It is necessary to sexualizar other with fantasies of aggression and “deviant” sexuality. Hitler said that the Jews are plotting on the use of black soldiers rape pure women Aryan. Killing of blacks in the U.S. South happened just a rumor that a black man had tried flirting with a white woman.

We and others

It is necessary to dehumanize segments of the population, the “other” immigrants, Latinos, Muslims, which helps to justify the treatment of these groups.

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