James Allison (left) and Tasuku Honjo (right) (the Nobel Assembly/Niklas Elmehed/detection)
That the human has appeared on over 250 thousand a year, and spent the greater part of them without anything like a hospital. If we’re here because we came up with the ready relief to the world’s most efficient factory-installed: the immune system. Our white blood cells, the defenders of the microscopic size, holding almost any step from the flu to malaria. But not able to protect us from cancer. Why?
In a nutshell: “cancer” is a general name for a group of diseases that is one of the cells undergo mutation and begin to multiply uncontrollably in a selfish way. No: it is a typographical error in the DNA, missteps, and not a problem directly caused by parasites, such as viruses or bacteria (although this can happen). Some of these mutations may be inherited from other parents, caused by external factors such as smoking and poor nutrition.
To understand why the security system of the body is unable to cope with the problem of internal origin, it is necessary to understand how the system works security. Let’s speak specifically of white blood cells called “T lymphocytes” – that would be theoretically responsible for dealing with tumors.
T lymphocytes are the killers of cells that are defective. Can you imagine the T lymphocytes of the ball a little bit with the entire surface of the equipment. These fittings have the same shape to turn themselves towards the small fragments of protein. Any proteins the state: only those that have been released by a cell when there is something wrong. Are those that serve as a warning.
Lymphocyte T sniffs the protein part of engagement as a puppy from the Federal Police sniffs cocaine in luggage at the airport. Knows the smell of the sample, and then chases the cells that have the same smell. These are the mutants. When it finds one, picks it up, he says. Simple as that.
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Lymphocyte T is a puppy, Bravo, who needs to tame. So, in order that the law is not only activated by using a protein suspected that if will fit perfectly in your lock (not the key in the lock). Other proteins you need to login to the game to improve or the inhibition of its action.
Cancer releases proteins buy activate the alarm. But also knows how to release regulatory proteins that prevent lymphocytes-T. So, they are the hit of the tumor, as if she wasn’t drugged can’t be working that day.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology and medicine in 2018 awarded to James Allison, Japan Tasuku Honjo, two of the pioneers of immunotherapy: a type of training to combat cancer that involves taking the reins of the T lymphocytes and allow them to dismantle tumors without mercy. Alison’s idea in the 1990s, when many scientists were trying to put more brake on the T lymphocytes to prevent them from attacking the bodies that are supposed to protect (the famous autoimmune disease). It was the opposite of the product: imagine that lymphocytes with less brake can also be useful in some cases.
How to take brakes? Simple: put a “lid” on the receiver that will fit. Allison found a cover called CTLA-4. And Honjo, PD-1. These hats are treatments, 4 of them have been approved by the Fda of America. And so it was that the two became history.
The British newspaper The Guardian, writer Dan Davies, author of a book on the history of immunotherapy called beautiful relationship, he said: “I am very excited that the Nobel Prize was awarded this treatment. He turned the game in the fight against cancer. Doesn’t work with everyone, but has already saved lives, and was the starting point of the revolution. Now scientists believe many other ways to take advantage of the immune system to fight against (…) diseases. This is only the tip of the iceberg. Many other treatments await us in the future.”
Being the minister responsible for higher education in the UK should be a breeze. Oxford and Cambridge brush top of any international classification, with another three or four of our universities on his heels. It is true that the United States is not the best, but not the size and any other country approaching. The United Kingdom didn’t do well in anything since Geoff Hurst’s hat-trick and the Beatles and the stones. Not even cycling or dressage can compete.
Sam Gyimah, appointed to the post in January 2018, faced a choice. Do you work with the sector to build on the strengths, or treated as delinquent infant in need of a good challenge in the tradition of his immediate predecessor, Joe Johnson?
So how has he solved all the problems? In accordance with good human resource practices, under test and evaluation. And to be even now, the 360 review: a review of throughout. I’m here to set myself to speak on behalf of those below, in the universities.
University education is not a product to be checked on gocompare.com
Gyimah set made of academics sit. True is the last president of the Oxford Union and PPE graduate. But he spent his early life between England and Ghana, and was one of the first male students at the former women’s college Somerville. There was a jerk, he may be sensitized to issues of equality and diversity, where the sector recently was something of a kick.
He was concerned about things? Well, to some extent. Has added his voice to those of the right form of poor record in minority recruitment in Uxbridge, but his main interest in the diversity of interests and voices in the campus. Keep fanning the flames of freedom of expression, safe spaces , and no platforming. For example, in a speech to vice-chancellors on 5 September that he has been warning of the rise of “unilateralism” in the campus, with the suppression of conservative pro-Brexit views, although the published version of the floor is carefully expressed.
This dog does not show progress of the sector and its strengths, achievements, and key risks. But there may be a suspicion that the one thing he learned from his Oxford lessons is that if you want people to listen, you had better your mood and interests. Apart from the concern about freedom of expression, Gyimah main message is that universities must offer value for money for students, or facing something non-specific but a bad regulator, the Office of the students.
The new universities minister Sam Gyimah has a battle on his hands | David Morris
Gyimah also, and most importantly, he urged universities to do more to address mental health issues, despite his suggestion that they are acting in an the parent is a poor substitute for a searching discussion of what about the environment side, such as the brutal examination system, which can lead to mental health problems.
Recently, the minister criticized the VC joints do not proactively search for research funds to replace those threatened by Britain’s exit. University response is that the government assured them that any loss of EU funding will be replaced by UK funds. And VCs was tepid in the search for alternative sources because they have no idea of where to look for the points on the scale required. The game turned out to not where the money comes from, but who will be responsible when implement?
Where we are after nine months of a new minister? My sense is that the sector is not changed only a little. We sit under the same complaints, with the lack of productive new ideas. Research funding under threat the future of international student recruitment is uncertain. And don’t get me started on student fees and debt. I’m afraid I’m not able to recommend performance-related wage increases in the current round.